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TRENDING : SUBJECTS OF MEDICINE YEAR 2

Date:14/07/2018

 

SUBJECTS OF MEDICINE YEAR 2

A doctor basically knows the way and shows the way. Sounds magnificent! but one can’t just jump on an escalator and get the tag of a doctor, one instead must step on the rungs of opportunity, one by one, and climb the ladder. Time, patience, dedication and hard work must be added to every step you take to make sure you stand out and get paid off in the long run. You need to opt for Physics, Chemistry & Biology & Math (optional) in 10+2. A solution to every and any discomfort you face is a Doctor. He is someone who has been trained and licensed to heal the sick.

MBBS is all medical and even the biology we read in our 12th, that comes too little as basics of human biology in first year of MBBS. The second-year deals with further close and detailed knowledge of subjects related to MBBS. Second Year MBBS consists of one and a half year comprising of three semesters which includes the Subjects –

  1. Pathology
  2. Pharmacology
  3. Microbiology
  4. Forensic medicine

PATHOLOGY

Pathology in Second Year MBBS deals with causes and mechanisms of diseases.

Syllabus: The Syllabus for Pathology for Second Year MBBS has been listed below:

  1. General Pathology
  2. Hematology
  3. Systemic Pathology
  4. Clinical Pathology

These are detailed as follows:

  1. A) GENERAL PATHOLOGY
  • Microscopy and tissue processing
  • Identify the common types of cells by light microscopy
  • Intracellular accumulation
  • Acute inflammation
  • Chronic inflammation and Repair
  • Thrombosis, embolism, infarction and gangrene
  • Edema and congestion
  • Disturbances of pigment metabolism
  • Tuberculosis
  • Leprosy
  • Amyloidosis
  • Disturbances of growth (Atrophy, hypertrophy, hyperplasia, metaplasia, dysplasia, hypoplasia)
  1. B) HEMATOLOGY

It deals with Collection of specimen, anticoagulants and common hematological tests (Hb)

Common Haematological Counts (TLC, DLC) & Interpretation of ESR are:

  • Haemopoiesis
  • Investigations in Anemia
  • Investigations in Leukemia
  • Investigations in hemorrhagic disorders
  • Blood Banking
  1. C) SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY

It covers following sub topics:

  • Diseases of blood vessels (Atherosclerosis, syphilitic aortitis)
  • Diseases of Heart (IHD & RHD)
  • Pneumonia
  • Tumors of lung
  • Diseases of kidney
  • Gross and Microscopic features of peptic ulcer and duodenal ulcer
  • Gross and Microscopic features of other intestinal ulcers
  • Tumors of GIT
  • Diseases of Liver
  • Lymphomas
  • Diseases of male and female genital system
  • Tumors of breast
  • Tumors of skin (Pigmented)
  • Tumors of skin (non-pigmented)
  • Soft tissue tumors
  • Tumors of bone
  • Diseases of thyroid
  1. D) CLINICAL PATHOLOGY

It deals with clinical related studies of pathology. Some of the subjects are:

  • Urine RE – Carryout a bedside routine urine examination and interpret the results.
  • Pregnancy test and Semen Analysis – (Practical demonstration).
  • Common cytological preparations (lecture demonstration).
  • CSF examination.
  • Serous effusion examination.

PHARMACOLOGY

Pharmacology in Second Year MBBS deals with Rational and scientific basis of therapeutics.

Syllabus: The Syllabus for Pharmacology for Second Year MBBS has been listed below:

  1. A) GENERAL PHARMACOLOGY
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Application to pharmacotherapeutics
  • Adverse Drug Reactions
  1. B) AUTONOMIC PHARMACOLOGY
  2. C) CARDIOVASCULAR SYSEM INCLUDING DRUGS AFFECTINGCOAGULATION AND THOSE ACTING ON KIDNEYS
  • General Considerations and Overview of anti-hypertensive therapy
  • Diuretics
  • Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) inhibitors
  • Sympatholytic & vasodilators
  • Management of hypertension
  • Antianginal: Nitrates & others
  • Calcium channel blockers
  • Pharmacotherapy of chest pain
  • Anticoagulants & Coagulants
  • Thrombolytic & Antiplatelet Agents
  • Drugs for CCF: Digitalis glycosides, other agents
  • Management of CCF
  • Antiarrhythmic Agents
  • Agents used for the management of shock
  • Hypolipidaemic drugs
  • Role of Nitric oxide and endothelin to be covered in CVS
  1. D) HAEMATINICS AND HAEMATOPOIETIC FACTORS

Agents used in therapy of iron deficiency anemia and megaloblastic anemia; Erythropoietin

Management of anemia

  1. E) NEUROPSYCHIATRIC PHARMACOLOGY INCLUDING INFLAMMATON,

PAIN & SUBSTANCE ABUSE

  • Psychopharmacology: Antianxiety; Antipsychotics; Antidepressants
  • Anti-epileptics
  • Therapy of neurodegenerative disorders:
  • Anti-Parkinsonian agents; cerebral vasodilators/nootropics
  • Local anesthetics
  • Analgesics: Opioids; NSAIDs
  • Pharmacotherapy of pain including migraine
  1. F) CHEMOTHERAPY INCLUDING CANCER CHEMOTHERAPY

Antimicrobial agents:

  • Sulphonamides & Cotrimoxazole
  • Quinoline derivatives
  • Penicillins, Cephalosporins & Other? Lactams
  • Aminoglycosides
  • Macrolides
  • Tetracyclines & Chloramphenicol
  1. G) AGENTS USED IN GASTROINTESTINAL DISORDERS
  • Pharmacotherapy of nausea & vomiting
  • Pharmacotherapy of peptic ulcer
  • Management of dyspepsia
  • Management of diarrhoea and constipation
  1. H) PERI-OPERATIVE MANAGEMENT: to be covered as a case study
  • Pre-anesthetic medication
  • Preparation of surgical site: antiseptics etc.
  • Local Anesthetics
  • Skeletal muscle relaxants
  • Drugs used in post-operative period: analgesics, anti-emetics etc.
  1. I) RATIONAL PHARMACOTHERAPY
  • Prescription writing and P-drug concept
  • Rational Drug Use; Essential Drug List (EDL)
  • Criticism with reference to Fixed Drug Combinations (FDCs)
  • Use and misuse of commonly used preparations: vitamins, antioxidants, enzymes etc.

MICROBIOLOGY

Microbiology in Second Year MBBS deals with Etiology, pathogenesis, pathogenicity, laboratory diagnosis, treatment, control and prevention of infections and infectious diseases.

Syllabus:

  1. A) GENERAL MICROBIOLOGY
  • Morphology of bacteria and Classification
  • Physiology of bacteria including growth requirements & metabolism
  • Sterilization
  • Disinfectants
  • Waste disposal
  • Bacterial genetics and drug resistance to antimicrobial agents.
  • Host parasite relationship and bacterial infections
  1. B) IMMUNOLOGY
  • Introduction
  • Antigens, HLA
  • Antibodies
  • Serological reactions
  • Immune response
  • Complement
  • Hypersensitivity
  • Autoimmunity
  • Transplantation &tumor immunology
  • Immuno-Deficiency
  1. C) SYSTEMIC BACTERIOLOGY

Pathogenesis includes:

  • Infectious agent
  • Habitat
  • Source / reservoir
  • Mode
  • Infective dose
  • Multiplication, spread
  • Clinical features, pathology
  • Complications
  • Virulence factors

FORENSIC MEDICINE

  1. A) DEFINITION, SCOPE RELEVANT TO SUBJECT
  • History of Forensic Medicine
  • Need, Scope, Importance and probative value of Medical evidence in Crime Investigation
  1. B) PERSONAL IDENTITY NEED AND ITS IMPORTANCE
  • Data useful for Identification of Living and Dead
  • Age estimation and its medico-legal Importance
  • Sex determination and its medico-legal importance
  • Other methods of establishing identity: Corpus Delicti, Dactylography, Tattoo marks, Deformities, Scars and other relevant factors
  • Identification of decomposed, mutilated bodies and skeletal remains
  • Medico legal aspect of *DNA fingerprinting – a brief introduction
  • Medico – legal aspect of blood and blood stains Collection, Preservation and Dispatch of Specimen for Blood and other ancillary material for identification and Medico-legal examination
  1. C) MECHANICAL INJURIES AND BURNS

It includes the classification of injuries: Abrasions, Contusions, Lacerations, Incised and Stab injury, Firearm and Explosion injury, Fabricated and Defense injury

  • Medico-legal aspect of injury/hurt, simple and grievous hurts, murder, Ante -mortem, Postmortem Wounds, Age of the injury, cause of death and relevant sections of I.P.C., Cr.P.C.
  • Causative Weapon and appearance of Suicidal, Accidental and Homicidal injuries
  • Physical methods of Torture and their identification
  • Reporting on Medico-legal cases of Hurts
  • Regional injuries: Head injury, cut throat injuries and Road traffic accident injuries
  • Thermal injuries: Injuries due to heat and cold, Frostbite, Burns, Scalds and Bride burning
  • Injuries due to Electricity, Lightening Collection, Preservation and Dispatch of Specimen for Blood and other ancillary material for Medico-legal examination
  1. D) MEDICO-LEGAL ASPECTS OF SEX, MARRIAGE, AND INFANT DEATH
  • Sexual Offenses and perversions: Natural (Rape, Adultery, and Incest), Unnatural (Sodomy, Bestiality and Buccal coitus) Lesbianism, perversions and relevant sections of I.P.C. and Cr.P.C.
  • Fertility, Impotence, Sterility, Virginity, and Nullity of marriage and divorce on Medical ground
  • Pregnancy, Delivery, Paternity, Legitimacy, Artificial Insemination,Fertilisation in Vitro, Sterilization (Family Planning Measures)
  • Abortions, Medical Termination of pregnancy, criminal abortions, Battered Baby Syndrome, Cot deaths and relevant sections of I.P.C. and Cr.P.C., M.T.P. Act of 1971 and fatal sex determination act
  • Infant death (Infanticide)

Being a doctor is considered as one of the most divine and most respected profession in the society as to be a doctor immense hard work and dedication is required. Since it is a profession that offers no chance to do a mistake and handle human life directly, being a doctor has its benefits and disadvantages. It’s a profession that has service in mind and shall be done with utmost care and concern.