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Date:14/07/2018

 

SUBJECTS OF MEDICINE YEAR 4

The most sought after and highly paid profession is called as being a Doctor. A doctor basically knows the way and shows the way. Sounds magnificent! but one can’t just jump on an escalator and get the tag of a doctor, one instead must step on the rungs of opportunity, one by one, and climb the ladder. Time, patience, dedication and hard work must be added to every step you take to make sure you stand out and get paid off in the long run. You need to opt for Physics, Chemistry & Biology & Math (optional) in 10+2. A solution to every and any discomfort you face is a Doctor. He is someone who has been trained and licensed to heal the sick.

MBBS is all medical and even the biology we read in our 12th, that comes too little as basics of human biology in first year of MBBS. The second-year deals with further close and detailed knowledge of subjects related to MBBS. Third year details the students about Ophthalmology, OtoRhinoLaryngology (ENT) and Community Medicine (PSM/SPM). Fourth year MBBS consists of one year which includes the Subjects–

  • Medicine
  • Surgery
  • Pediatrics
  • Obstetrics
  • Gynecology
  • Dermatology
  • Anesthesia
  • Radiology
  • Psychiatry

MEDICINE:

  1. CARDIOLOGY: The course outline is as follows:
    • Rheumatic fever and infective endocarditis.
    • Valvular heart diseases.
    • Mitral valve
    • Aortic valve
    • Ischemic heart disease.
    • Angina
    • Myocardial infarction
    • Cardiac arrhythmias
    • Atrial fibrillation
    • Ventricular tachycardia
    • Premature atrial and ventricular beats.
    • Heart failure.
  1. PULMONOLOGY: course outlines include
  •  
  • Environmental lung diseases/occupational.
  • Asbestosis
  • Silicosis
  • Bagassosis
  • Pneumoconiosis
  • Byssinosis
  • Farmer’s lung
  • Pneumonia
  1. DERMATOLOGY: course outline includes
  • Anatomy, physiology of skin related to clinical dermatology
  • Infestations: scabies, pediculosis.
  • Bacterial and mycobacterial infections
  • Fungal and viral diseases.
  • Acne vulgaris
  •  
  • Psoriasis
  • Lichen planus
  • Bullous disorders.
  • Pigmentary disorders
  • Disorders of nails.
  • Disorders of hairs.
  • Sexually transmitted diseases.
  1. NEUROLOGY AND CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM: course outlines
  • Infections and inflammatory lesions
  • Meningitis
  • Encephalitis
  • Hydrocephalus
  • Epilepsy and other convulsive disorders
  • Cerebrovascular diseases (stroke).
  • Dementia and Alzheimer’s disease.
  • Parkinson’s disease and other movement disorders.
  • Motor neuron disease.
  1. ALIMENTARY SYSTEM: course outlines
  • Oral cavity
  • Infections and inflammatory disorders
  • Benign and malignant diseases
  •  
  • Dysphagia with special reference to
  • Ca esophagus
  • GERD
  • Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).
  • Liver
  •  
  •  
  1. KIDNEYS AND URINARY SYSTEM: course outlines
  • Urinary tract infections
  • Chronic renal failure
  • Acute renal failure
  • Nephrotic syndrome
  • Lead, uric acid, hypercalcemia, radiation & hypersensitivity
  •  
  • Drugs contra indicated in renal insufficiency
  • Drugs to be used with caution in renal disease.
  1. ENDOCRINOLOGY: course outlines
  • Anterior pituitary.
  • Growth hormone disorders
  • Acromegaly
  •  
  • Short stature
  • Infertility
  • Diseases of hypothalamus and posterior pituitary.
  • Empty sella syndrome
  • Diabetes insipidus
  • Syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion (SIADH).
  • Thyroid gland.
  1. RHEUMATOLOGY: course outlines
  • Osteoarthritis
  • Osteoporosis
  • Rheumatoid arthritis and related arthropathies
  • Paget’s disease of the bone.
  • Osteopetrosis (marble bone disease).
  • Multiple myeloma
  • Multi-System Immunological Diseases
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
  1. METABOLIC DISORDERS:course outlines
  • Hyperlipidemia
  • Hemochromatosis
  • Porphyria
  • Wilson’s disease
  • Gout and hypercalcemia
  • Storage diseases.
  •  
  1. INFECTIOUS DISEASES: course outlines
  • Clinical syndromes.
  • Sepsis and septic shock, meningococcemia
  • Acute infectious diarrheal diseases and bacterial food
  •  
  • Hospital acquired infections.
  • Common disease syndromes caused by the following bacteria
  • and their drug therapy.
  • Pneumococci
  •  
  1. HAEMATOLOGY: course outlines
  •  
  • oB-12 deficiency
  • folic acid deficiency
  • Anemia of chronic disorder
  1. PSYCHIATRY: course outlines
    • Mood disorders
    • Major depressive episodes
    • Unipolar
    • Bipolar
    • Dysthymic
    • Atypical
    • Maniac episodes
    • Anxiety disorders
    • Acute anxiety states
    • Panic disorders
    • Generalized anxiety disorders

SURGERY:

The course outline is as follows:

  • Systems and the Diseases:
  • Head, Face and Neck
  • Breast
  • Chest Wall & Thorax
  • Gastro Intestinal Tract
  • Abdominal, Pelvic and Genital Trauma and Hernia.
  • urogenital trauma.
  • Liver
  • Gall Bladder
  • Pancreas
  • Spleen
  • Urinary Tract
  • Orthopedics and Trauma
  • Vascular and Nerve Disorders

Essential Skills to be acquired

  • Provide First Aid: Resuscitation (ABC) of polytrauma, CPR.
  • Collect samples of blood, urine, stool, sputum, pus swab etc.
  • InsertNaso-gastric tube have observed chest intubation andparacentesis.
  • Do IV cannulation, have observed CV-line insertion and cut- down ofveins.
  • Catheterize male and female patients.
  • Prepare the patient for and know the procedure of doing X-Ray chest,abdomen, KUB, bones, IVU, barium studies, ultrasound and otherimaging investigations.
  • Principles of pre-operative preparations, sterilization/disinfectiontechniques.
  • Principles of wound care, skin suturing and suture removal, tissue lumps, needle biopsies, aspiration of localized fluids, etc.

OBSTETRICS

  • Obstetric history taking and examination.
  • Conception, implantation and development of placenta,
  • fetal circulation, abnormalities of placenta.
  • Fetal skull and bony pelvis.
  • Diagnosis of pregnancy.
  • Physiological changes associated with pregnancy.
  • Ante-natal care.
  • Early pregnancy loss and its management

GYNACEOLOGY

  • Puberty and adolescence.
  • Ovulation and its clinical importance.
  • Normal menstruation.
  • Menstrual abnormalities.
  • Gynecological history taking and examination
  • Minor gynecological operative procedures.
  • Amenorrhea
  •  
  •  
  • Ectopic pregnancy.

PEDIATRICS

  • Common problems of children in Pakistan and statistics of Pakistani
  • Children (Clinical methods in pediatrics, Nutrition (breast feeding, infant feeding, weaning))
  • Disorders(PEM, rickets, vitamin A deficiency, iodine deficiency, irondeficiency)
    • Growth and development.
    • Common pediatric infections: measles, tetanus, polio, diphtheria
  • whooping cough, aids
  • Malaria, enteric fever, tuberculosis, chicken pox, common skin
  • infections
    • Expanded program of immunization (EPI): newer vaccines

Being a doctor is considered as one of the most divine and most respected profession in the society as to be a doctor immense hard work and dedication is required. Since it is a profession that offers no chance to do a mistake and handle human life directly, being a doctor has its benefits and disadvantages. It’s a profession that has service in mind and shall be done with utmost care and concern. Being a doctor is not an easy task as you have to be focused towards your studies and you have to work with dedication. But once you become a doctor, you are into one of the most respected profession and you can get highly paid as well. There are master courses in your field to polish your skills in your field more and to add to your salary package as well.